/tech/ - Technology and Computing

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GNU/Linux-based OSes thread Anonymous 03/12/2020 (Thu) 18:37:41 No.1994
If you would like to try out GNU/Linux because of https://itvision.altervista.org/why-windows-10-sucks.html , you can do one of the following: 0) Install a GNU/Linux distribution of your choice in a Virtual Machine (preferably using KVM or Oracle VirtualBox for newfriends). 1) Use a live image and to boot directly into the GNU/Linux distribution without installing anything (keep in mind that the performance of live distros might be very different than from distro that was booted from your HDD, as most distros are loaded in RAM and don't include the proprietary drivers for NVIDIA GPUs or up-to-date Mesa libraries in their isos). 2) Dual boot the GNU/Linux distribution of your choice along with Windows (make sure to install Windows first, as it can "replace" GRUB or other UNIX bootloaders, and troubleshooting of Windows replacing your bootloader of choice might be painful for people that just started learning about the Linux kernel) 3) Go balls deep and replace everything with GNU/Linux (you really shouldn't do this, if you don't know what you're putting yourself into, see: https://itvision.altervista.org/why.linux.is.not.ready.for.the.desktop.current.html ). Resources: Use your web browser and search engine of choice. Good comparison between them is hosted here: https://digdeeper.neocities.org/ghost/browsers.html https://digdeeper.neocities.org/ghost/search.html If not sure which browser to choose, just use the Tor Browser Bundle: https://www.torproject.org/ or paste these commands to your terminal emulator of choice (please make sure to first learn what they're exactly doing): $ sudo apt install torbrowser-launcher (Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint or just simply apt-based distros) $ sudo pacman -S base-devel git go && git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/yay.git && cd yay && makepkg -si $ cd .. && rm -rf yay && yay -S tor-browser (pacman-based distros) $ xbps-install -S torbrowser-launcher (Void Linux) If you "bricked" yourself and can't launch Xorg/Wayland, then try installing an terminal-only browser like Lynx and using it troubleshoot your mistake. Type these commands to your terminal emulator to learn more about various commands: $ man command $ info command $ command -h/--help $ help builtin/keyword Don't know what to look for? $ apropos something Check the wikis (most troubleshoots work for all distros): https://wiki.archlinux.org https://wiki.gentoo.org 8chan /tech/'s wiki on GNU/Linux: https://wiki.cloveros.ga/Main_Page 4chan /g/'s wiki on GNU/Linux: https://wiki.installgentoo.com/index.php/Category:GNU/Linux Watch videos on JewTube: https://github.com/omarroth/invidious/wiki/Invidious-Instances >What distro should I choose? 1. Ubuntu, or it's flavors like Xubuntu, Kubuntu or even forks like Linux Mint (only LTS or LMDE) and KDE Neon (only LTS) - Focal Fossa 20.04 is the beta of the next LTS (long term support) release of Ubuntu and is scheduled for official release on April 23 2020 - Eoan Ermine 19.10 is the semi-rolling release of Ubuntu (still containing mostly stable and out-of-date packages) - Bionic Beaver 18.04 is the current LTS release of Ubuntu and thus is the most supported by corporations like Canonical (corporation behind Ubuntu) and it's partners, Valve, GOG.com and hardware manufactures in general. It just works™ 2. Debian GNU/Linux - Stable (“buster”) It's the stable/LTS and the "true" release of Debian. Contains a lot of outdated, but stable packages and is the easiest to install release of Debian. - Testing (“bullseye”) Is the testing release of Debian, which still contains a few outdated packages to be more stable. It's packages later go to the stable channel. - Unstable (“sid”) Is the rolling release of Debian and with the help of Debian Experimental, can be nearly as rolling as Arch or even Gentoo. It's packages after enough testing (usually a week) later go to the testing channel. >How do I install Debian's experimental packages? https://wiki.debian.org/DebianExperimental If you want something that has insane support and one of the largest communities out there, or just simply something that gives users more choices than Ubuntu, then this is the distro for you. 3. Arch Linux Is a rolling distro with a semi-minimalistic approach to GNU/Linux, meaning you install it only from the console itself with pre-compiled binary packages (packages that are ready to install). Can be easily broken, if the end-user doesn't know how to avoid troubleshooting it. It's primary audience are users that want bigger control of their system. and people who want to stay on the most-up-to-date versions of their favorite programs. Good for learning how GNU/Linux works. 4. Manjaro Linux/EndeavourOS Are forks of Arch Linux with the Calameres installer. Manjaro has it's own repositories, with package release channel similar to Debian's, while EndeavourOS tries to stay as close to Arch as it is possible. Decent, if you're one of those people which never read manuals. 5. Gentoo GNU/Linux Is a distro that is very similar to Arch, but is much more stable and up-to-date thanks to you getting in control of configuring and compiling everything from the source code. Is also much harder/longer to setup than Arch's installation process, but compiling everything from it's source can result in overall better performance of programs that you use daily. Nothing can beat it when it comes to avoiding systemd. Perfect for learning how your UNIX systems actually work. 6. Linux From Scratch (LFS), Guix or NixOS if somehow Gentoo didn't made you comfy with it, then with these distros you possibly can't get comfier except if you make the switch to BSD-based systems. Even more info here: https://wiki.cloveros.ga/Babbies_first_Linux https://distrowatch.com/ https://wiki.installgentoo.com/index.php/Babbies_First_Linux If you don't care about having a modern desktop and want to avoid systemd, make sure to give the distros listed by this website a try: https://nosystemd.org/ If you prefer 100% libre, free as in speech distros: https://www.gnu.org/distros/free-distros.en.html >What are some cool programs? https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/list_of_applications https://directory.fsf.org/wiki/Main_Page https://suckless.org/rocks/ https://github.com/fossasia/mew >What are some cool terminal commands? https://www.commandlinefu.com/commands/browse (doesn't work without JavaScript enabled) https://cheat.sh/ >Where can I learn the command line? https://mywiki.wooledge.org/BashGuide https://www.grymoire.com/Unix https://overthewire.org/wargames/bandit >Where can I learn more about Free Software? https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/philosophy.html >How can I run Windows software? Install the drivers for your GPU: https://github.com/lutris/lutris/wiki/Installing-drivers Then install Wine (Wine Is Not an Emulator) and preferably the 'Staging' branch of it: https://wiki.winehq.org/Download Lastly read this: https://www.winehq.org/documentation Also, make sure to learn about winetricks, DXVK and Windows .dll files in general.
Edited last time by NULL_1 on 04/10/2020 (Fri) 01:33:43.
Is using extended partitions bad for dual booting?
>>2051 Use grub and stop giving a shit about partitioning.
>>2065 grub is ass and doesn't wanna work once I install KDE. fuck grub.
So can anyone here explain this? cause it's beyond me how it's possible. I installed manjaro linux on one of my relative's PC, it had 3 partitions 1 for home and for root, last one didn't have a mountpoint was done purely for space to their request cause it was a 3TB drive Well, their linux stopped working for some reason, but because i'm lazy i just gave them a different drive with working linux. Funny thing is, somehow the 3rd partition on the drive was missing data, like images n shiet. While some was fine, with all the original directories intack.... How the fuck is this possible? It was only the 3rd partition that got shit on too. everything else was fine...
>>2078 What file system? My guess is power outage during a write.
>>2078 >How the fuck is this possible? file writes are like state-machines with transitions, failures can easily happen. on top of that, os can be vulnerable to accidental or malicious filesystem corruption. you aren't providing enough information for us to make anything more than a vague guess anon. protip: lrn3putering B4 doing shit like this for family again
>>2068 >grub doesn't work with KDE u wot. That doesn't even make fucking sense. GRUB IS A GODDAMN BOOTLOADER, IT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH A GODDAMN DOWNSTREAM DE. IF IT'S PASSING BAD KERNEL PARAMETERS THAT BREAKS YOUR SHIT THEN IT'S YOUR FUCKING FAULT, NEWFAG. >>2078 Probably a power outage like >>2079 said or the drive is failing. https://www.linuxtechi.com/check-hard-drive-for-bad-sector-linux/ use hdparm or badblocks, do some read/write tests or something. Could be a southbridge issue too if there's something fucking up on the motherboard, but that's rare. It's almost always the shit HDD. Hard drives are a fucking shit and unreliable. For retard computers, get a cheap SSD for the OS and home partition, then have the "muh moovies" drive automount on boot and tell the tards to put their shit there. Once the drive shits the bed, throw it in a freezer overnight, get amazon 1-day delivery for a new drive and dd that shit to the new one. >putting an OS on a multi-tb drive fucktarded, imo. >>2080 Always go for the simplest solution imo, and bad hard drives is #1 on that list.
>>2082 good advice here.
>>2082 > https://www.linuxtechi.com/check-hard-drive-for-bad-sector-linux/ telling a newb to use badblocks is a bad idea imo. >"Important note: If the output of badblocks is going to be fed to the e2fsck or mke2fs programs, it is important that the block size is properly specified, since the block numbers which are generated are very dependent on the block size in use by the filesystem. For this reason, it is strongly recommended that users not run badblocks directly, but rather use the -c option of the e2fsck and mke2fs programs."
>>2079 it was ext4, it wasn't a power outage. I know the real issue. This relative is kinda a retard so given the information i was being told it "just stopped working" and a bunch of other unhelpful shit. I later found out that the idiot tried to fucking run it through windows. which means he used a shitty ext4 driver on windows which fucked the entire partition. I already was taking a hands off approach to fixing their shit, it annoys me that fucktards who do niggerlicious shit to their computers are in the end just going to blame the guy who initially set it up in a clean state for all their problems. >>2082 >>putting an OS on a multi-tb drive >fucktarded, imo. Not my decision, they bought the drive i just did the install. But for the record. The computer itself was one of those niggerlicious minimalist computers, the shit designed to sit ontop of your desk in a small space. It could only hold a single drive.. >>2080 >implying i'm to blame for this shit >be gentoo autist >only use minimal window managers and install shit like musl+libressl >get nigger tier relative who is tech illiterate who wants me to help him set up his new pc >do it anyway cause i'm not an asshole >tell him some basic shit, like how to find out his own problems (use a search engine, fourms/wiki etc) >he does something fucktarded >spend hours trying to figure what the absolute fuck did he do to make that shit happen >"lol it's all ur fault" Your a fucking niggerlicious. Doesn't matter cause unlike (you) who just copypasted the solution somebody posted before you without taking any imitative of your own, i actually figured out what the fuck happened. And (you) have the gall to claim yourself as competent, larping as tech literate isn't helpful it's just fucking dumb, like those retards who have started blaming things unrelated for all their issues. examle: the fucktard blaming grub for his KDE issues, or the other tards who keep blaming systemd for their own incompentency. simply because they heard from some fag on lwn that "systemd bad joo joos" >>>/8boomer/
>>2088 Fuck the nigger moderater who thought word filtering re ta rd was a good idea
>>2088 >"lol it's all ur fault" your original post certainly maked you seem like a tech illiterate. >which means he used a shitty ext4 driver on windows which fucked the entire partition. that's probably this issue, which you failed to mention initially. why ask us ZOMG HOW DID THIS HAPPEN?!11
>>2090 >why ask us ZOMG HOW DID THIS HAPPEN try working with an idiot who keeps insisting he dindu nuffin. come back when you have thoroughly basked in the headache.
>>2090 >your original post certainly maked you seem like a tech illiterate. >post used terms like mountpoint, partition,etc >illiterate nigga, you haven't seen illiterate if you thought that was illiterate.
>>2088 Do what thumbdrive manufacturers do, just format the tarditions as exFAT.
>>2091 >come back when you have thoroughly basked in the headache. We all have and learned a long time ago not to touch a computer of a friend/relative. You're the retard doing it for free and expecting not to be taken advantage of.
>>2094 >don't help anyone for free >entire thread is based around helping others for free >git issue trackers are based around solving problems for free >thousand of fourms exist souly to help others >opensource is based around the premise of constantly testing and fixing problems FOR FREE >the internet as a whole is based around the FREE flow of information You could've at least taken the route of don't help those who won't communicate, as that is the better route to that retardism. "don't help those who won't even help themselves" Is a better ideal.
So uh, the devuan live installer stopped working for some reason as in I finish the install and nothing shows up in grub. The base installer works fine however I have no Idea how to make it encrypt my /home partition like it does in the live one despite it having that function. Is there a certain brand of programmer socks I need to get for this shit to make sense?
>>2082 >it just werks
>>2134 >promoting faggotry >>>/4cuck/g
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I just tried to install font-manager, and its dependency libfontconfig also updated. After the installation font rendering became badly broken. Going into Appearance options and turning anti-aliasing on and hinting to full does not fix the problem completely within the windows itself, despite being a small improvement, and moreover it doesn't change anything at all outside of the window itself; browsers, my torrent client, and everything else doesn't change between hinting off and full. Any suggestions on how to fix or troubleshoot this? It's already starting to give me a headache. I am using Debian 9 with XFCE.
Thread is comfy. Missed you /tech/, fucking 8kun's /g/ is almost as bad as 4chan's /g/. It's unbearable
>>2148 >libfontconfig My mistake, it was libgucharmap.
>>2149 Welcome back
>>2148 Whatever it was, I ended up just uninstalling libgucharmap and font-manager, deleted ~/.config/fontconfig and /etc/fonts, and restored /etc/fonts from a backup, which at least got me back to where I started.
>>2149 >8kun's /g/ is almost as bad as 4chan's /g/. It's unbearable Yes and no. 4chan is still FAR FAR worse somehow. >goto 8kun >thread with single word/sentence threads with really shitty topics (similar to what /g/ used to be like) >goto 4chan >threads with NO topic and NO posts, just an image/embed.
>>2003 >pic why would you do that to poor gentoo-chan ;_;
>>2147 >larping as little girls denial is a strong drug anon. >>2148 do you know how to make installing work again?
>>2168 b-but a-anon.. we're all little girls h-here.
>>2170 do a coin flip
>>2170 I'm guessing the answer is no. >saging a dead thread on a dead board
I've been trying to make mpv's vo=gpu and gpu-api=vulkan options work, but when I use them in my mpv.conf they just simply act as if they don't exist and display libplacebo error in mpv's console (`). I compiled ffmpeg and libplacebo before mpv with all the Vulkan-related options enabled, alongside NVIDIA's hardware decoders (nvdec, CUDA). Switching my self-compiled git version of mpv to my distros binary package of it didn't helped at all. I'm starting to think that there's something seriously wrong with the latest release of NVIDIA's proprietary drivers, as playing Kimetsu no Yaiba BD's worked through X11's and mesa's nouveau module. Did anyone here maybe experienced the same problem in the past? This shit is so annoying that it makes me want to switch back to Windows and deeply regret buying NVIDIA's GPU. >>2149 Okaeri. >>2177 Who are you quoting, fren?
>>2202 What does -v says?
>2202 >Who are you quoting, fren? Somebody who isn't getting any (you)s
>paste these commands, provided without explaination >here are five different commands to get info about some other command >let me shill the same garbage pigchan blog No wonder linux has a <5% presence in desktop world
>>2436 L O L FuCk OfF N00B we don't want people like you anyway!
>>2436 <paste these commands, provided without explaination Are you blind? This is literally underneath these commands: Type these commands to your terminal emulator to learn more about various commands: $ man command $ info command $ command -h/--help $ help builtin/keyword >here are five different commands to get info about some other command I know, spending some time reading sure is hard when you're born as a nigger. >let me shill the same garbage pigchan blog At least explain why it's garbage.
What are some very light weight distros for a shitty outdated laptop with 4gb ram? I'm using Linux Mint and it lags rather frequently. I'm trying some on virtual machine like lubuntu which runs pretty smooth given the limit that it is allowed on. Also, is there any way to reduce heat from a laptop without disassembling it out to clean? I'm thinking it's the dust clogged in there that raises the temperature. I have already tried blowing it with a straw but doesn't seem to work. Blasting fan in front of it really helps and elevate them with bottle caps reduces a bit too but those are just temporary solutions.
>>2792 The issue is primarily the DE (desktop environment) itself. Fundamentally all *NIXs tend to have generally similar performance, as far as the kernels are concerned. Generally. The issue with Cinnamon is that it's almost entirely Python, which as an interpreted language, is notoriously slow compared to say C or C++. Since you mentioned you're on a potato-box as am I atm heh, I'd recommend you choose a much leaner DE like XFCE. You will find things running much snappier for you Anon. As far as dust goes, you need a can of compressed air. I'd recommend you turn the machine off entirely and let it cool down first (b/c air exiting the nozzle of the can is often freezing cold, which will break hot computer shit ofc), and then use up the entire can trying to get into all the nooks and crannies. Do this outside ofc. If that doesn't help, then you'll have no choice but to learn how to open up the notebook and clean it out, again with compressed air. Good luck Anon. BTW, I started out on Mint Cinnamon, and then moved to Manjaro XFCE after a couple of years. I'm a lot happier now. :^)
>>2792 >What are some very light weight distros for a shitty outdated laptop with 4gb ram? Cross compile Gentoo for it. Compile a custom unbloated custom kernel, and use a faster DE like xfce, or rice out your own DE. I use openbox, tint2, urxvt, and SpaceFM. I really like it. I've also heat good things about lxqt. Though the fact it uses Qt makes me wonder how lightweight it really is. >Also, is there any way to reduce heat from a laptop without disassembling it out to clean? You could underclock it, but if it's already slow... > I have already tried blowing it with a straw but doesn't seem to work. you better mean you used a can of air with a straw and not your fucking breath! You're going to get spittle on the board and fuck shit up! Don't blow on electronics! SALIVA=SALTWATER=CORROSION=DEATH Go to Walmart or Tesco or whatever you have in your country and buy a can of air, open it up, take it outside, and blow it out properly.
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>Guix System is pretty cool but for whatever reason the packages can be busted in general and the filesystem structure brings more strange oddities that i can't be bothered to deal with >Video editing in blender is comfortable but ungodly slow even with Michael Meyer's render python script and honestly without making proxy clips it's still slow to playback videos if you have an effect on making certain accurate cuts without looking at audio waveforms like a mega autist >normal subtitles in the VSE is also extra shit or rather you can't have a good looking border around the subtitles, (there's an autistic way around it but holy fuck i am not making multiple 3d meshes for subtitles) >I have to use mpv with an ffmpeg script addon to cut videos manually (better than punching in timestamps in the cli) and order them as well, for blah in *, ffmpeg concat all this >then use aegisub for good subtitles >then look into audacity to check if the audio levels are peaking, if they do, edit within audacity, rip out the audio in the finished video and inject the audio back in On the plus side of all this video editing autism, i don't do anything silly like re-rendering untouched video and losing any sort of quality but the easiness is sort of loss along the way. Why the hell aren't NLEs smart enough to not re-render an entire video, especially if all of the damn videos have the exact same codec? I must be in a weird niche use case.
>>2797 Checkout https://www.mltframework.org/docs/melt/ Also, learn to greentext.
>>1994 Going a little into init here, does anyone have experience with s6 init? I noticed that artix offers it as a choice along with runit and openrc. I know runit gets a lot of praise, and I do like how simple it is, but I also know that development on it has basically stopped. Is s6 any good? I'm not a huge fan of openrc.
>>2966 Don't know much about s6. You should try it out with a spare computer or in a vm. What do you have against openrc?
>>2967 I set it up in a VM earlier today using their weekly image with lxqt just for a quick usable desktop. It seems quite fast and pretty verbose during bootup. Haven't had the chance to mess with it a lot. I don't hate openrc, but I tend to find it is a bit sluggish compared to the alternatives, even just old sysvinit. I don't do a lot of tinkering with init. Most of my interactions with my init system are just starting, rebooting, and shutting down, so speed means more to me than maybe it should. Speed, stability, and not using binary logs.
>>2969 Couple more things to consider: >compatibility with software, if you ever need (most software shouldn't depend of init system, but there is gnome) >ease of writing your own service/modifying configs, if you need to run a server but it doesn't come with service script >language it is written in >optionally: license and pozzness
>>2971 Why anyone would ever want to use GNOME I have no idea. Pretty much any non-systemd init is going to have some of the same issues with compatibility, though most distros who offer alternate inits take this in mind when packaging software. It looks like it's C code, and ISC license, so no big issues there. the only problem is your second point, and that's just something I'll have to look at as I'm using it in the VM. Hopefully another anon here has used it and can state his opinion of it.
>>2977 Update on s6: I quite like it. It handles dependencies for services automatically, which is nice. This is something runit does not do. For example, network manager requires dbus. S6 would handle this automatically, while I'd have to add it manually for runit. The whole bundle system is a little confusing for finding certain services, but it's not too bad. I tested it out switching the default sddm for lightdm and it worked fine. https://skarnet.org/software/s6/why.html is a short page on some of the features of s6 compared to other init systems, and one thing I really like is that logs are never lost. Overall, I can definitely see this replacing runit in popularity when it comes to alternative init systems, espeically as runit spends more and more time being inactive. I wouldn't call it perfect, but I would call it very good.
>>1994 > (you really shouldn't do this, if you don't know what you're putting yourself into, see: https://itvision.altervista.org/why.linux.is.not.ready.for.the.desktop.current.html ). Did I stumble onto internet time portal into late 1990-s, or what? News from post-2018 for you: Linux desktop is not a problem at all. Running one for over dozen years. The problem is that Linux foundation as such is now utterly PWNed, up to and including Torvalds himself being blackmailed into "voluntary" retirement. Hence all the bullshit like the infamous systemd thing. So it's going to be supplied by the same, uh, people as Weendows and Muck Ox. Therefore, a good question is: are there forks of the core from a more trustworthy team? For that matter, Libreoffice is still okay, but some bad smell already comes from that side too, see >>219
Anyone with experience in Guix SD here?

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